# Category Archive for: Frequency Distribution Cross Tabulation and Hypothesis Testing

The instructions given here and in all the data analysis will work with the SAS Learning Edition as well as with the SAS Enterprise Guide. The Summary Statistics task provides summary statistics including basic summary statistics. percentile summary statistics, and more advanced summary statistics including confidence intervals, statistics, coefficient of variation, and sums of squares. It also provides graphical…

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We discuss the use of SPSS and SAS in detail in the subsequent sections. Here, we briefly describe the use of MINITAB and EXCEL, In MINITAB. the main function for frequencies is Stats-Descriptive Statistics. The output values include the mean, median. standard deviation, minimum, maximum, and quartiles. Histograms in a bar chart or graph can be produced from…

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In many marketing research applications. the observations for the two groups are not selected from independent samples. Rather. the observations relate to paired samples in that the two sets of observations relate to the same respondents. A sample of respondents may rate two competing brands. indicate the relative importance of two attributes of a product. or evaluate a…

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Parametric tests provide inferences for making statements about the means of parent populations, At test is commonly used for this purpose. This test is based on the Student’s statistic, The t statistic assumes that the variable is normally distributed and the mean is known (or assumed to be known), and the population variance is estimated from the sample.…

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When conducting cross-tabulation analysis in practice, it is useful to proceed along the following steps. 1. Test the null hypothesis that there is no association between the variables using the chi square statistic. If you fail to reject the null hypothesis, then there is no relationship. 2. If Ho is rejected, then determine the strength of the…

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We will discuss the statistics commonly used for assessing the statistical significance and strength of association of cross-tabulated variables: The statistical significance of the observed association is commonly measured by the chi-square statistic. The strength of association, or degree of association, is important from a practical or substantive perspective. Generally, the strength of association is of interest only if…

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Although answers to questions related to a single variable are interesting, they often raise additional questions about how to link that variable to other variables. To introduce the frequency distribution, we posed several representative marketing research questions. For each of these, a researcher might pose additional questions to relate these variables to other variables. For example: • How…

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Basic analysis invariably involves some hypothesis testing. Examples of hypotheses generated in marketing research abound: • The department store is being patronized by more than 10 percent of the households. • The heavy and light users of a brand differ in terms of psycho-graphic characteristics. • One hotel has a more upscale image than its close…

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As illustrated in the previous section, a frequency distribution is a convenient way of looking at different values of a variable, A frequency table is easy to read and provides basic information, but sometimes this information may be too detailed and the researcher must summarize it by the use of descriptive statistics, The most commonly used statistics associated…

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Real Research Commercial Battle of the Sexes A comparison of television advertising in Australia, Mexico, and the United States focused on the analysis of sex roles in advertising. Results showed differences in the portrayal of the sexes in different countries. Australian advertisements revealed somewhat fewer, and Mexican advertisements slightly more, sex-role differences than U.S. advertisements. Cross-tabulation and chi-square…

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