Likert Scale Marketing Research Help


Listed here are different opinions about Sears. Please indicate how strongly you agree or disagree with each by using the following scale:

1 = Strongly disagree
2 = Disagree
3 = Neither agree nor disagree
4 = Agree
5 = Strongly agree

The Likert scale has several advantages. It is easy to construct and administer. Respondents readily understand how to use the scale, making it suitable for mail, telephone. personal or electronic interviews. Therefore, this scale was used in the NYCf telephone survey in the opening example. The major disadvantage of the Likert scale is that it takes longer to complete than other itemized rating scales because respondents have to read each statement. Sometimes, it may be difficult to interpret the response to a Likert item, especially if it is an unfavorable statement. In our example, the respondent disagrees with statement number 2 that Sears has poor in-store service. In reversing the score of this item prior to summing, it is assumed that this respondent would agree with the statement that Sears has good in-store service. This, however, may not be true; the disagreement merely indicates that the respondent would not make statement number 2.

The following example shows another use of a Likert scale in marketing research

How Concerned Are You About Your Online Privacy

In spite of the enormous potential of e-commerce, its share compared to the total portion of the economy still remains small: less than 3 percent worldwide as of 2009. The lack of consumer confidence in online privacy is a major problem hampering the growth of e-commerce. A recent report showed that practically all Americans (94.5 percent), including Internet users and non-Internet users, are concerned about “the privacy of-their personal information when or if they buy online.” Therefore, the author and his colleagues have developed a scale for measuring Internet users’ information privacy concerns. This is a lO-item, three dimensional scale. The three dimensions are control, awareness, and collection. Each of the 10 items is scored on a 7-point Likert-type agree-disagree scale. The scale has been shown to have good reliability and validity. This scale should enable online marketers and policy makers to measure and ‘address Internet users’ information privacy concerns, which should result in increased e-commerce.l Due to space constraints we show only the items used to measure awareness.

Awareness (of Privacy Practices)

We used 7-point scales anchored with “strongly disagree” and “strongly agree.”

1. Companies seeking information online should disclose the way the data are collected. processed, and used.
2. A good consumer online privacy policy should have a clear and conspicuous disclosure.
3. It is very important to me that I am aware and knowledgeable about how my personal information will be used

Semantic Differential Scale

The semantic differential is a 7-point rating scale with endpoints associated with bipolar labels that have semantic meaning. In a typical application, respondents rate objects on a number of itemized, 7-point rating scales bounded at each end by one of two bipolar adjectives, such as “cold” and “warrn.’-6 We illustrate this scale by presenting a respondent’s evaluation of Sears on five attributes

The respondents mark the blank that best indicates how they would describe the object being rated.’ Thus, in our example, Sears is evaluated as somewhat weak, reliable, very old-fashioned, warm. and careful. The negative adjective or phrase sometimes appears at the left side of the scale and sometimes at the right. This controls the tendency of some respondents, particularly ‘those with very posuive or very negative attitudes, to mark the right- or left-hand sides without reading the labels. The methods for selecting the scale labels and constructing a semantic differential scale have been described elsewhere by the author. A general semantic differential scale for measuring self-concepts. person concepts. and product concepts is shown

Semantic Differential Scale


This part of the study measures what certain department stores mean to you by having you judge them on a series of descriptive scales bounded at each end by one of two bipolar adjectives. Please mark (X) the blank that best indicates how accurately one or the other adjective describes what the store means to you. Please be sure to mark every scale; do not omit any scale.

Form Sears is:

Powerful :-:-:-:-:-X-:-:-: Weak
Unreliable :-:-:-:-:-:-X-:-: Reliable
Modem :-:-:-:-:-:-:-X-. Old-fashioned
Cold:-:-:-:-:-:-X-:-: War
Careful:-:-X-:-:-:-:-:-: Careless

A Semantic Differential Scale for Measuring Self-Concepts Person Concepts and Product Concepts

1- Rugged :——- : Delicate
2_ Excitable :-.-.-.-.-.-.- : Calm
3_ Uncomfortable :——- : Comfortable
4_ Dominating :——- : Submissive
5_ Thrifty :——- : Indulgent
6. Pleasant :-:-:-:-:-:-:- : Unpleasant
7. Contemporary :-:-:-:-:-:-:- : Non contemporary
8_ Organized :-:-:-:-:-:-:- : Unorganized
9_ Rational :-‘-‘-‘-‘-‘-‘- : Emotional
10_ Youthful :-;-:-:-;-:-;- : Mature
11- Formal :-.-.-.-.-.-.- : Informal
12_ pl1hodox :-.-.-,-.-,-.- : Liberal
13. Complex- :-:-:-;-:-:-;- : Simple
14. Colorless :-:-:-:-:-:-:- : Colorful
15_ Modest :-‘-‘-‘-‘-‘-‘- : Vain

Individual items on a semantic differential scale may be scored on either a -3 to +3or a l-to-7 scale. The resulting <lata are commonly analyzed through profile analysis. In profile analysis, means or median values on each rating scale are calculated and compared by plotting or statistical analysis. This helps determine the overall differences and similarities among the objects. To assess differences across segments of respondents, the researcher can compare mean responses of different segments. Although the mean is most often used as a summary statistic, there is some controversy as to whether the data obtained should be treated as an interval scale.? 011 the other hand, in cases when the researcher requires an overall comparison of objects, such as to determine store preference, the individual item scores are summed to arrive at a total score. As in the case of the Likert scale, the scores for the negative items are reversed before summing

Its versatility makes the semantic differential a popular rating scale in marketing research. It has been widely used in comparing brand, product, and company images. It has also been used to develop advertising and promotion strategies and in new product development studies.t? Several modifications of the basic scale have been proposed

Stapel Scale

The Stapel scale. named after its developer. Jan Stapel, is a uni polar rating scale with 10 categories numbered from -5 to +5. without a neutral point (zero).’! This scale is usually presented vertically. Respondents are asked to indicate how accurately or inaccurately each term describes the object by selecting an appropriate numerical response category. The higher the number, the more accurately the term describes the object, as shown in the department store project. In this example, Sears is evaluated as not having high quality and having somewhat poor service

Posted on December 1, 2015 in Measurement And Scaling Noncomparative Scaling Techniques

Share the Story

Back to Top