The questions may have to be translated for administration in different cultures. Direct translation, in which a bilingual translator translates the questionnaire directly from a base language to the respondent’s language, is frequently used, However, if the translator is not fluent in both languages and not familiar with both cultures, direct translation of certain words and phrases may be erroneous. Procedures such as back translation and parallel translation have been suggested to avoid these errors. In back translation, the questionnaire is translated from the base language by a bilingual speaker whose native language is the language into which the questionnaire is being translated, This version is then retranslated back into the original language by a bilingual whose native language is the initial or base language.
Translation errors can then be identified. Several repeat translations and back translations may be necessary to develop equivalent questionnaires, and this process can be cumbersome and time-consuming.27
An alternative procedure is parallel translation. A committee of translators, each of whom is fluent in at least two of the languages in which the questionnaire will be administered, discusses alternative versions of the questionnaire and makes modifications until consensus is reached. In countries where several languages are spoken, the questionnaire should be translated the language of each respondent subgroup. It is important that any nonverbal stimuli
(pictures and advertisements) also be translated using similar procedures. The following example underscores the importance of correct translation
Researchers Can Get No Self-Respect in Germany
A common questionnaire used to measure consumer values is the List of Values (LOV). In North America, it has revealed nine basic value segments held by consumers. TIle most widely held values of Americans are self-respect, security, and warm relationships with others. To conduct a comparative study in Germany, the LaV had to be translated into a German version (GLOV). Through the process of translation and back translation, a suitable form was created; however, some inconsistencies remained. For example, it was very
difficult to translate the English concepts of “warm relationships with others” and “self-respect” into German. As a result, the data revealed that significantly fewer Germans than Americans hold these as their most important values. The researchers concluded that the imprecise translation was more responsible for these results than actual differences in value orientations.
The table shows the distribution of the top three values for each culture, with the rank in parentheses.
Another recent study examined the significance of values in Chinese women’s emerging roles. Based on six female role dimensions, the Chinese women were segmented into three groups. The groups wore ideologues, traditionalists, and modems, and they were found to have very different demographic and attitudinal characteristics. Characterized mainly by their performance outside the household, ideologues still endorse the idea of serving country and promoting national welfare. Ideologues tend to select brands that are given a seal of approval by an independent testing agency or a socially respected individual. The traditionalists are influenced by Confucianism, which values family relationships, loyalty, and harmony. Modems desire to live for today without any concern for the more restrictive values that might be imposed by society or family. They are more apt to choose products that meet their own personal needs rather than the family’s
CIA on BRIC
You are to design a survey to determine people’s altitudes toward globalization in the BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India, and China).From the Facebook, obtain information on each of these four countries. Based on the information you obtained, answer the following questions
1. Which survey method should be used in each of these four countries? Why?
2. In what language should the questionnaire be administered in each of these four countries? If the questionnaire has to be translated, what translation issues are involved and how will you handle these issues
Polo Ralph Lauren: Penetrating Europe
Over the past 35 years, Polo Ralph Lauren Corporation has been able to redefine how American style and quality are perceived. It is a leader in the design, marketing, and distribution of premium lifestyle products in four categories (apparel, home, accessories, and fragrances) across a number of products, brands, and international markets. The company’s brand names include Polo, Polo by Ralph Lauren, Ralph Lauren Purple Label, Polo Sport, Ralph Lauren, RAlPH, Lauren, Poio Jeans Co, RL, Cbaps, and Club Monaco. The group markets its products in the United States, Europe, and other foreign countries.
In April 2008, Polo Ralph Lauren won the U.S. Olympic contract to outfit the 2008 U’S. Olympic Team. In order to continue its growth and expansion into new horizons, Polo Ralph Lauren follows these key elements
1. Extend Polo Ralph Lauren brands- While maintaining a consistent global image of the present brands, they will seek both to extend existing brands and to create new brands to address new and emerging markets and consumers.
2. Expand Polo’s geographic coverage-In addition to the United States, there are international markets (e.g., Europe and Japan) that are underpenetrated and provide growth opportunities for the expansion of their American designs and lifestyle image.
3. Increase direct management-To continue to enhance their ability to control their brands, Polo Ralph Lauren will open more specialty stores, improve the merchandising in existing stores, and strategically acquire select licensees.
4. Enhance operations-Potential still exists for further significant margin expansion on the operations level.
The Marketing Research Decision
1. What type of marketing research should Polo Ralph Lauren undertake to successfully increase its penetration in Europe and how should such research be reported?
2. Discuss the role of the type of research you recommend in enabling Ralph Lauren to increase market share in Europe
The Marketing Management Decision
1. How should Ralph Lauren build an aggressive marketing strategy in Europe?
2. Discuss how the marketing management decision action that you recommend to Ralph Lauren is influenced by the research that you suggested earlier and by the findings of that research
Ethics in Marketing Research
Ethical responsibilities for marketing research conducted abroad are very similar to that conducted domestically. For each of the six stages of the marketing research design process, the same four stakeholders (client, researcher, respondent, and public) must act honorably and respect their responsibilities to one another. As the following example indicates, the ethical constraints facing marketing researchers abroad are fairly similar to those at home. for all the similarities, some ethical issues become more difficult. Conducting marketing research in a foreign country can easily become a political issue. Researchers must be careful to adopt the ethical guidelines of not only the domestic country but the host country as well.
Europeans Legislate Data Privacy
There is widespread implementation of data privacy laws in the European Union (EU). A prototype of the EU’s data privacy laws is the United Kingdom’s Data Protection Act (DPA), embodying eight guidelines
1. Personal data will be obtained and processed fairly and lawfully.
2. Personal data will be held only for specified and lawful purposes.
3. Personal data will not be used for any reason other than the specified purpose.
4. Personal data for specified purposes will not be excessive in amount.
5. Personal data will be accurate and will be kept current.
6. Personal data will not be kept longer than necessary for the specified purpose.
7. Users of personal data must provide non delayed access to personal data (at no expense) when individuals make requests to examine their personal data over reasonable intervals. Where appropriate. data users must correct or erase erroneous data.
8. Data users must take appropriate security measures against unauthorized access, alteration, disclosure, destruction, or loss of personal data.
As of October 31. 2003. European Union member states must comply with the Directive on Privacy and Electronic Communications, which sets EU standards for the protection of privacy and personal data in electronic communications. As of 2009. the European Commission has stated its desire to achieve bilateral and multilateral international cooperation efforts in complying with the Directive
Software programs that can facilitate cross-cultural research, such as INTERVIEWER, should become more widely available in the future to meet the challenges of international marketing research. INTERVIEWER by Voxco of Montreal (Quebec), Canada provides bilingual interviewing capability for computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI). With two keystrokes, operators can switch from a questionnaire written in English to the same questionnaire written in Spanish. This can even be done during the course of the interview in a matter of seconds. This feature markedly reduces the mental strain for bilingual interviewers. Such interviewing features prove useful in areas with nested cultures, such as in Miami, Los Angeles, or New York. In areas of the world where market areas spread beyond political or cultural boundaries, such as in Basel, Switzerland (near the three borders of Switzerland, France, and Germany), INTERVIEWER could be used with modification. Because of lower transnational telecommunication charges and political agreements permitting more open markets around the world, INTERVIEWER offered switching capability between most of the major languages as of 2009.