Competition in the detergent market was brewing in Thailand. Super concentrate detergent was fast becoming the prototype as of 2008. Market potential research in Thailand indicated that super concentrates would continue to grow at a healthy rate, although the detergent market had slowed. In addition, this category had already dominated other Asian markets such as Taiwan, Hong Kong.and Singapore. Consequently, Colgate entered this new line of competition with Fab Power Plus with the objective of capturing 4 percent market share. The main players in.the market were Kao Corp.’s Attack, Lever Brothers’ Breeze Ultra and Omo. and Lion Corp.’s Pao Hand Force and Pao M. Wash. Based on qualitative research and secondary data, Colgate assessed the critical factors for the success of super concentrates. Some of these factors were environmental appeal, hand washing and machine washing convenience superior cleaning abilities, optimum level of suds for hand washing, and brand name.
Market research also revealed that no brand had both hand and machine wash capabilities. Pao Hand Force was formulated as the hand washing brand. Pao M. Wash was the machine wash version. Lever’s Breeze Ultra was targeted for machine use. Therefore. a formula that had both hand and machine wash capability was desirable. A conjoint study was designed and these factors varied at either two or three levels. Preference ratings were gathered from respondents and part-worths for the factors estimated both at the individual and the group level. Results showed that the factor of hand-machine capability had a substantial contribution, supporting earlier claims. Based on these findings, Fab Power Plus was successfully introduced as a brand with both hand and machine wash capabilities
Ethical Perceptions of Marketing Research Firms
In a refined scale to measure the degree to which a certain situation is ethical or unethical, three factors have been found to have acceptable validity and parsimony. Two of these dimensions are particularly interesting. These are a broad-based moral equity dimension (factor I) and a relativistic dimension (factor 2). Using multidimensional scaling, one can plot the perceived ethics of marketing research firms using these dimensions. For example, an MDS plot might look like this
As of 2009, the marketing research industry was trying hard to portray that it maintained high ethical standards. These findings imply that marketing research flJTOS(external firms) must convince the business world that their ethical standards are as high as those of internal marketing research departments of business firms. Also, if limited-service suppliers are to compete, then they must maintain and project the same ethical standards maintained by the full-service marketing research flJTOs
Wendy’s: Positioning the Brand
Wendy’s International, Inc. completed its merger with the Triarc Companies, Inc., on September 29, 2008, and the combined company was named Group, Inc. Founded by Dave Thomas in 1969, in Columbus Ohio, Wendy’s serves one of the best hamburgers in the business, made with fresh beef hot-off-the-grill and a choice of toppings. Frostys, soft drinks, and a variety of fresh, healthy foods such as salads and grilled chicken sandwiches, baked potatoes, and chili are also part of its menu. Quality is a vital component of Wendy’s products and is reflected in Dave Thomas’s slogan: “Quality is our recipe.”
In the department store project, respondents’ evaluations of the 10 stores on each of the eight factors of the choice criteria were used to derive similarity measures between the stores. Euclidean distances were calculated between each pair of stores. These data were analyzed using multidimensional scaling to obtain spatial maps that represented the respondents’ perceptions of the 10 stores. In one such map, the dimensions were identified as prestigious versus discount stores, and regional versus national store chains. Stores that competed directly with each other (e.g., JCPenney and Macy’s) were located close together in the perceptual space. These perceptual maps were used to gain insights into the competitive positioning of the 10 department stores
requires a specification of the brands or stimuli to be included. The number and nature of brands selected influences the resulting solution. Input data obtained from the respondents can be related to perceptions or preferences. Perception data can be direct or derived. The direct approaches are more common in marketing research. The selection of an MDS procedure depends on the nature (metric or non metric) of the input data and whether perceptions or preferences are being scaled. Another determining factor is whether the analysis will be conducted at the individual or aggregate level. The decision about the number of dimensions in which to obtain a solution should be based on theory, interpret ability, elbow criterion, and ease-of-use considerations. Labeling of the dimensions is a difficult task that requires subjective judgment. Several guidelines are available for assessing the reliability and validity of MDS solutions. Preference data: can be subjected to either internal or external analysis. If the input data are of a qualitative nature, they can be analyzed via correspondence analysis. If the attribute-based approaches are used to obtain input data, spatial maps can also be obtained by means of factor or discriminant analysis .
Conjoint analysis is based on the notion that the relative importance that consumers attach to salient attributes, and the utilities they attach to the levels of attributes, can be determined when consumers evaluate brand profiles that are constructed using these attributes and their levels. Figure 21.14 gives a concept map for conjoint analysis. Formulating the problem requires an identification of the salient attributes and their levels. The pairwise and the full-profile approaches are commonly employed for constructing the stimuli. Statistical designs are available for reducing the number of stimuli in the evaluation task. The input data can be either nonmetric (rankings) or metric (ratings). Typically, the dependent variable is preference or intention to buy.
Although other procedures are available for analyzing conjoint analysis data, regression using dummy variables is becoming increasingly important. Interpretation of the results requires an examination of the part-worth functions and relative importance weights. Several procedures are available for assessing the reliability and validity of conjoint analysis results.