As it faced stiff competition in digital cameras, Nikon (www.nikon.com) was marketing its Coolpix line in 2009 with the taglines such as, “passion made powerful,” “brilliance made beautiful,” and “memories made easy.”.The campaign was designed to evoke emotional feelings in consumers.
Nikon based this campaign or study conducted to identify feelings that are precipitated by advertising. A total of 655 feelings ·re reduced to a set of 180that were judged by respondents to be most likely to be stimulated by a tising. This group was clustered on the basis of judgments of Thus, 655 feeling responses to advertising were reduced to a core set of 31 feelings.As such, advertisers now have a manageable set of feelings for understanding and measuring emotional responses to advertising. When measured, these feelings can provide information on a commercial’s ability to persuade the target consumers, as in the case of Nikon cameras.
Cluster analysis, particularly clustering of objects, is also frequently used in international marketing research (as in the next example) and could also be useful in researching ethical evaluations (as in the example after that).
Perceived Product Parity-Once Rarity-Now Reality
How do consumers in different countries perceive brands in different product categories? Surprisingly, the answer is that the product perception parity rate is quite high. Perceived product parity means that consumers perceive all/most of the brands in a product category as similar to each other, or at par. A new study by BBoo Worldwide (www.bbdo.com) shows that two-thirds of consumers surveyed in28 countries considered brands in 13product categories to be at parity. The product categories ranged from airlines to credit cards to coffee. Perceived parity averaged 63 percent for all categories in all countries. The Japanese have the highest perception of parity across all product categories at 99 percent, and Colombians the lowest at 28 percent. Viewed by product category, credit cards have the highest parity perception at 76 percent, and’ cigarettes the lowest at 52 percent.
BBoo clustered the countries based on product parity perceptions to arrive at clusters that exhibited similar levels and patterns of parity perceptions. The highest perception parity figure came from the Asia/Pacific region (83 percent) that included countries of Australia, Japan, Malaysia, and South Korea, and also France. It is no surprise that France was in this list because, for most products, they use highly emotional, visual advertising that is feelings oriented. The next cluster was U.S.-influenced markets (65 percent), which included Argentina, Canada, Hong Kong, Kuwait, Mexico, Singapore, and United States. The third cluster, primarily European countries (60 percent), included Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Italy, Netherlands, South Africa, Spain, United Kingdom, and Germany.
What all this means is that in order to differentiate the product/brand, advertising cannot focus just on product performance, but also must relate the product to the person’s life in an important way.Also, much greater marketing effort will be required in theAsia/Pacific region and in France in order \0 differentiate the brand from competition and establish a unique image. A big factor in this growing party is, of course, the emergence of the global market. Arecent study explored the issues underlying the actual informational content of advertising under the conditions of product parity and product type. The data for this study were derived from content analysis from more than 17,000newspaper advertisements and 9,800 television advertisements. Analysis showed that advertisements for low-parity products contain more factual information than their counterparts. When the two conditions were seen together, parity influences actual informational content but not to the same degree as product type.The study revealed that overall, when it comes to including factual information in advertisements, advertisers respond more to product type than product parity.
Going Global Is American|
Visit www.themarketingresearch.com and search the Internet using a search engine as well as your library’s online database to obtain information on consumers’ airline preferences for global travel. As the CEO of American Airlines (www.aa.com). how would you segment the global market for travel by air? What data should be obtained and how they should be analyzed to segment the market for global air travel?