Measurement And Scaling Noncomparative Scaling Techniques Marketing Research Help

New York City Transit in Transit

The New York City Transit (NYCT) does not have a wholly captive audience. as some people believe. Many people do not use the mass transit system when they have a choice. A much needed rate hike brought fears that more people would avoid taking the bus or subway. Therefore. research was undertaken to uncover ways to increase ridership.

In a telephone survey. respondents were asked to rate different aspects of the transit system using five-point Liker scales. Liker scales were chosen because they are easy to administer over the telephone and the respondents merely indicate their degree of (dis)agreement (1 = strongly disagree, 5 = strongly agree).

The results showed that personal safety was the major concern on subways. New Yonkers were afraid to use a subway station in their own neighborhoods. NYCT was able to respond to riders’ concerns by increasing police presence. having a more visible NYCT staff. increasing lighting. and re positioning walls. columns. and stairways for better visibility throughout the station

Telephone surveys also revealed that cleanliness of subway stations and subway cars is related to the perception of crime. In response, NYCT was able to concentrate more on ways to maintain a cleaner appearance. Action was also taken to reduce the number of homeless people and panhandlers. They are asked to leave, and sometimes transportation to shelters is provided

Results of marketing research efforts have helped NYCT improve perceptions surrounding the system, leading to increased ridership. As of 2008. the New York subway system has 468 stations-the largest number of public transit subway stations for any system in the world

Non comparative Scaling Techniques

Respondents using a non comparative scale employ whatever rating standard seems appropriate to them. They do not compare the object being rated either to another object or to some specified standard, such as “your ideal brand.” They evaluate only one object at a time, and for this reason non comparative scales are often referred to as monadic scales. Non comparative techniques
consist of continuous and itemized rating scales, which are described in Table 9.1 and discussed
in the following sections

Using Likert scales

Using Likert scales

Basic Noncomparative Scales

Basic Noncomparative Scales

Continuous Rating Scale

In a continuous rating scale, also referred to as a graphic raring scale, respondents rate the objects by placing a mark at the appropriate position on a line that runs from one extreme of the criterion variable to the other. Thus, the respondents are not restricted to selecting from marks previously set by the researcher. The form of the continuous scale may vary considerably. For example. the line may be vertical or horizontal; scale points, in the form of numbers or brief descriptions, may be provided; and, if provided, the scale points may be few or many. Three versions of a continuous rating scale are illustrated

Continuous Rating Scales

How would you rate Sears as a department store

Probably the worst – – – – – – – I – – – – – – – – – Probably the best

Version 2

Probably the worst – – – – – – – I – – – – – – – –  Probably the best
o 10 20′ 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Version 3

Very bad Neither good Vel) good nor bad
Probably the worst – – – -I – – – – Probably the best
o 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

Once the respondent has provided the ratings, the researcher div ides the line into as many categories as desired and assigns scores based on the categories into which the ratings fall. In the department store project example, the respondent exhibits an unfavorable attitude toward Sears. These scores are typically treated as interval data. Thus. continuous scales possess the characteristics of description. order, and distance. as discussed

The advantage of continuous scales is that they are easy to construct. Howev cr. scoring is cumbersome and unreliable. Moreover, continuous scales provide little new information. Hence, their use in marketing research has been limited. Recently, however. with the increased popularity of computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI), Internet surveys. and other technologies. their use is becoming more frequent. Continuous rating scales can be easily implemented in CAPI or on the Internet. The cursor can be moved on the screen in a continuous fashion to select the exact position on the scale that best describes the respondent’s evaluation. Moreover. the scale values can be automatically scored by the computer, thus increasing the speed and accuracy of processing the data

Continuous Measurement and Analysis of Perceptions: The Perception Analyzer

The Perception Analyzer  by MS interactive is a computer-supported, interactive feedback system composed of wireless or wired handheld dials for each participant. a console (computer interface). and special software that edits questions. collects data. and analyzes participant responses. Members of focus groups use it to record their emotional response to television commercials. instantly and continuously. Each participant is given a dial and instructed to continuously record his or her reaction to the material being tested. As the respondents turn the dials, the information is fed to a computer. Thus. the researcher can determine the second-by-second response of the respondents a, the commercial is run. Furthermore. this response can be superimposed on the commercial to see the respondents’ reactions to the various frames and parts of the commercial

The analyzer was recently used to measure responses to a serie~ of “slice-of-life” commercials for McDonald’s. The researchers found that mothers and daughters had different responses to different aspects of the commercial. Using the emotional response data, the researchers could determine which commercial had the greatest emotional appeal across mother-daughter segments. McOonald’s marketing efforts proved successful with 2008 revenues of $23.52 billion

Itemized Rating Scales

In an itemized rating scale, the respondents are provided with a scale that has a number or brief description associated with each category. The categories are ordered interms of scale position. and the respondents are required to select the specified category that best describes the object

Compames such

Compames such

Likert Scale

Named after its developer, Rensis Likert, the Likert scale is a widely used rating scale that requires the respondents to indicate the degree of agreement or disagreement with each of a series of statements about the stimulus objects.’ Typically. each scale item has five response categories, ranging from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree:’ We illustrate with a Likert scale for evaluating attitudes toward Sears in the context of the department store project.

Posted on December 1, 2015 in Measurement And Scaling Noncomparative Scaling Techniques

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