Since 1997. offer> a big and low prices for watches and jewelry. Obviously, for an online retailer, the holidays are a particularly important period. It is a time when many people shop online, so sales can really soar. was able to use electronic audit data about how their purchasers shop and how much they are buying. Nielsen Online constructed a Holiday E·Commerce Index. which measured Web shopping in eight different categories. Rather than gathering descriptive research about the customers from the customers. Nielsen Online gathered the data from the stores where the customers shopped.
Because the orders were placed online. the store computers were able to track the purchases with ease. This computer tracking was then used to gather the purchasing information from the stores and accumulated into a report format. The survey (old (hat a large portion of (heir customers were purchasing from the Web site while at work. This trend applied around the Web. as 46 percent of holiday online shopping was conducted during work hours versus the 54 percent that was conducted from consumers’ homes. Nielsen Online determined that customers were shopping during the lunch hour or in small, 10-15 minute clips throughout the day
Industry services provide syndicated data about industrial firms, businesses. and other institutions. Financial. operating, and employment data are also collected by these syndicated research services for almost every North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) industrial category. These data are collected by making direct inquiries; from dipping services that monitor newspapers. the trade press, or broadcasts; and from corporate reports. The range and sources of syndicated data available for industrial goods firms are more limited than those available for consumer goods firms. Services available Include D&B International Business Locator Fortune Darastore, which contams databases such as the Fortune 500, Fortune 1000, Global 500, and the fastest-growing companies database and Standard & Poor’s Information Services, which includes Corporate Profiles
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF INDUSTRY SERVICES Industry services represent an important source of secondary information on industrial firms. The information they provide can be valuable in the initial phases of a marketing project. However, they are limited in the nature, content, quantity, and quality of information
Combining Information from Different Sources Single-Source Data
It is desirable to combine secondary information obtained from different sources. Combining data allows the researcher to compensate for the weakness of one method with the strengths of another. One outcome of the effort to combine data from different sources is single-source data. Single-source research follows a person’s TV, reading. and shopping habits. After recruiting a test panel of households. the research firm meters each home’s TV sets and surveys family members periodically on what they read. Their grocery purchases are tracked by UPC scanners. For background. most systems also track retail data. such as sales, advertising. and promotion. Thus, single-source data provide integrated information on household variables, including media consumption and purchases, and marketing variables. such as product sales, price. advertising. promotion, and in-store marketing effort.
Soaps Shed a “Guiding Light” on V-8 Consumption
CBS’s Guiding Light celebrated its 71st anniversary on January 25, 200S. making it the longest running drama ever. In 2008. both Guiding Light and ABC’s General Hospital were popular in terms of overall soap opera viewership The Campbell Soup Company used single-source data to target its adverusing for V8 juice By obtaining single-source data on product consumption, media consumption. and demographic characteristics, Campbell found that demographically similar TV audiences consume vastly different amounts of VS. For example, on an index of 100 for the average household’s V·8 consumption. General Hospital had a below-average SOindex, while Guiding Light had an above-average 120 index. These results were surprising, because General Hospital actually had a slightly higher percentage of women 25 to 54 years old, the demographic group most predisposed to buy VS. and so would be expected to he a better medium to reach VS drinkers, Using this information. Campbell rearranged its advertising schedule to raise the average index. As of 200S. the VS line consisted vegetable Juices. VS Splash Juice Drinks. and VS V-Fusion Juices. that are a blend of vegetable and fruit jui,
The V8 example shows the usefulness of combining secondary information from different sources. As another example, computer mapping combines geography with demographic information and a company’s sales data or other proprietary information to develop thematic maps. Marketers now routinely make decisions based on these color-coded maps. Mapping systems allow users to download geographically detailed demographic data supplied by vendors. The user can then draw a map that color codes neighborhoods in Dallas, for example, by the relative density of households headed by 35- to 45-year-olds with incomes of $50,000 or more. These systems allow users to add proprietary information to the downloaded data.
Claritas: Empowering Verizon’s Marketing Research
Communications Inc., headquartered in New York, is a leader in delivering broadband and other wireline and wireless communication services, serving more than 80 million customers nationwide. When company executives recently decided to converge its local phone service with wireless. Internet, and long-distance services, they needed a way to identify the best customers and choicest markets for building a combined wireless and wire line network. And they needed to do so while being mindful of government restrictions against using phone customer data to market other communications services.
Yerizon identified 19 of 62 PRIZM clusters that are fertile ground for a converged wireless-wireline network. The company then used Compass to rank its wireless markets by concentration of target group clusters. In high-ranking markets like Little Rock. Arkansas; Charlotte, North Carolina: and Jacksonville, Florida, Yerizon conducted direct marketing campaigns of bundled services to wireless customers. “In two days, we prioritized 54 markets so we had a battle plan on where to go first,” says Mickey Freeman, staff manager of strategic marketing. “Claritas gave us a common logic to look at the similarities and differences of each of our markets.”3
Buying Power Index
Sales & Marketing Management’s annual Survey of Buying Power provides data to help you analyze each of your U.S. markets. whether they are cities, counties, metro areas. or states. It features statistics. rankings, and projections for every county and media market in the United States with demographics broken out by age, race. city, county, and state; information on retail spending; and projections for future growth in these areas. All of the rankings are divided into 323 metro markets (geographic areas set by the Census Bureau) and 210 media markets (television or broadcast markets determined by Nielsen Media Research), all furnished by Claritas, Inc
Nielsen Online repons on nearly 70 percent of the world’s Internet usage to give a broad view of the online world. The company focuses its research on Internet usage in the following countries: Australia, Brazil, France, Germany. Italy. Japan, Spain. Switzerland. the United Kingdom. and the United States.
Go to Nielsen Online’s horae page at On the top menu bar. select “Resources” and then select “Free Data and Rankings.’ Under “Internet Audience Metrics,” to view results for a country. double-click on the country name. For the following exercises. choose “Home Panel” and “Web Usage Data” to \ iew the most recent month’s results for each country. (If the Web site has been restructured, follow a similar procedure.) Record your findings about each country’s “pc Time Per Person” in a table.
1. Which country posts the most”PC Time Per Person”?
2. Which country posts the least “PC Time Per Person”?
Now choose “Global Index Chart’ in order to view the latest month’s Global Internet Index: Average Usage.
3. What is the average “pc Time Spent per Month” for the set of countries”!
4. Which countries were above the average for”PC Time Spent per Month” for the latest month?
5. Which countries were below the average for”PC Time Spent per Month” for the latest month
Euro consumers Go for Spending Splash
The Gallup organization which specializes in Maney research obtaining both lifestyle and psychographic data. recently conducted interviews” ith more than 22500 adults across the European Community. Their results point to an exploding consumer durable market. particularly for convenience items. such as remote controlled TVs. microwave ovens, VCRs. anJ cellular phones. The educational level and the standard of living among this consumer group are generally unprovmg. Europeans are also displaying higher levels of discretionary purchasing. demonstrated ill a ero\”ng demand for travel packages. which continued to be strong through the year 2008. until the In the personal-care market. the number of European women using perfume is declining. offset by a
growing demand for deodorants
Ethics in Marketing Research
The researcher is ethically obligated to ensure the relevance and usefulness of secondary data to the problem at hand. The secondary data should be evaluated by the criteria discussed earlier in this chapter. Only data judged to be appropriate should be used. It is also important that the data were collected using procedures that are morally appropriate. Data can be judged unethical if they were gathered in a way that harms the respondents or invades their privacy. Ethical issues also arise if the users of secondary data arc unduly critical of the data that do not support their interests and viewpoints
The Ethical Pill Can Be Bitter to Swallow
ABC. NBC, CBS. some advertising agencies. and major advertisers are at odds with Nielsen Media Research” television ratings. They criticize Nielsen’s sampling -chernc and intrusive data recording methodologies. A central issue in the criticisms of Nielsen is that the Big Three have received declining viewership ratings. As of ~009. prime-time viewership to the seven broadcast networks has declined. The top four broadcast networks (ABC. CBS. NBC. and Fox) each had across-theboard audience declines. according to Nielsen Media Research data.
In defense of the networks. monopolies tend to resist innovation and lack incentive to improve processes. Complacency rules. as long as the money keep’ coming. A, a professional marketing research supplier. however. Nielsen Media Research is ethically bound to provide accurate and representative data-> to the best of its ability. Users also have the ethical responsibility of not criticizing secondary data simply because the data do not support their own viewpoints. Eventually network executives will have to swallow the bitter pill of reality that cable TV. direct-broadcast satellite TV, and the Internet are all gaining ground over broadcast television viewership. Network executives find it difficult to swallow this pill
Given the limitations of secondary data. it is often necessary to collect primary data in order to obtain the information needed to address the management decision problem. The use of secondary data alone when the research problem requires primary data collection could raise ethical concerns. Such concerns are heightened when the client is being billed a fixed fee for the project and the proposal submitted to get the project did not adequately specify the data collection methodology. On the other hand, in some cases it may be possible to obtain the information needed from secondary sources alone, making it unnecessary to collect primary data. The unnecessary collection of expensive primary data, when the research problem can be addressed based on secondary data alone, may be unethical. These ethical issues become more salient if the research firm’s billings go up, but at the expense of the client