We discuss the use of SPSS and SAS in detail in the subsequent sections. Here, we briefly describe the use of MINITAB and EXCEL, In MINITAB. the main function for frequencies is Stats-Descriptive Statistics. The output values include the mean, median. standard deviation, minimum, maximum, and quartiles. Histograms in a bar chart or graph can be produced from the Graph>Histogram selection. Several of the spreadsheets can also be used to obtain frequencies and descriptive statistics. In Excel, the Data>Data Analysis function computes the descriptive statistics. The output produces the mean, standard error. median, mode, standard deviation, variance, kurtosis, skewness, range, minimum, maximum, sum, count, and confidence level. Frequencies can be selected under the Histogram function. A histogram can be produced in bar format.

In MINITAB, cross-tabulations (cross-tabs) and chi-square are under the Stats〉-Tables function. Each of these features must be selected separately under the Tables function. The Data>Pivot Table function performs cross-tabs in EXCEL. To do additional analysis or customize data, select a different summary function such as max, min, average, or standard deviation. In addition, a custom calculation can be selected to perform values based on other cells in ‘ the data plane. ChiTest can be accessed under the Insert>Function>Statistical>ChiTest function.

Parametric tests available in MINITAB in descriptive stat function are z test mean, test of the mean, and two-sample test. The non-parametric tests can be accessed under the Stat>Time Series function. The output includes the one-sample sign, one-sample Wilcoxon, Manu-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, Mood’s Median test, Friedman, runs test, pairwise average, pairwise differences, and pairwise slopes. The available parametric tests in EXCEL and other spreadsheets include the t test: paired two sample- for means; t test: two independent samples assuming equal variances; test: two independent samples assuming unequal variances; z test: two samples for means; and F test: two samples for variances. Non-parametric tests are not available.

**SPSS and SAS Computerized Demonstration Movies**

We have developed computerized demonstration movies that give step-by-step instructions for running all the SPSS and SAS Learning, These demonstrations can be downloaded from the Web site for this book. The instructions for running these demonstrations are given in Exhibit 14.2.

**SPSS and SAS Computerized Demonstration Movies**

We have developed computerized demonstration movies that give step-by-step instructions for running all the SPSS and SAS Learning Edition programs, These demonstrations can be downloaded from the Web site for this book. The instructions for running these demonstrations are given in Exhibit 14.2.

**SPSS Windows**

The main program in SPSS is FREQUENCIES. It produces a table of frequency counts, percentages, and cumulative percentages for the values of each variable. It gives all of the associated statistics, If the data are interval scaled and only the summary statistics are desired, the DESCRlPTIVES procedure can be used. All of the statistics computed by DESCRlPTIVES are available in FREQUENClES. However, DESCRIPTIVES is more efficient because it does not sort values into a frequency table. Moreover, the DESCRIPTIVES procedure displays summary statistics for several variables in a single table and can also calculate standardized values (z scores). The EXPLORE procedure produces summary statistics and graphical displays, either for all the cases or separately for groups of cases. Mean, median, variance, standard deviation, minimum, maximum, and range are some ot the statistics that can be calculated.

To select these procedures, click:

Analyze>Descriptive Statistics>Frequencies

Analyze>Descriptive Statistics>Descriptives

Analyze>Descriptive Statistics>Explore

We give detailed steps for running frequencies on Familiarity with the Internet (t able 15.1) and plotting the histogram (Figure 15.1).

1. Select ANALYZE on the SPSS menu bar.

2. Click DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS and select FREQUENCIES.

3. Move the variable “Familiarity [familiar)” to the VARIABLE(s) box.

4. Click STATISTICS.

5. Select MEAN, MEDIAN, MODE, STD. DEVIATION, VARIANCE, and RANGE.

6. Click CONTINUE.

7. Click CHARTS.

8. Click HISTOGRAMS, then click CONTINUE.

9. Click OK.

The major cross-tabulation program is CROSSTABS. This program will display the cross-classification tables and provide cell counts, row and column percentages, the chi-square test for significance, and all the measures of the strength of the association that have been discussed. To select these procedures, click:

Analyze>Descriptive Statistics〉=Crosstabs

We give detailed steps fer running the cross-tabulation of sex and usage of the Internet given in Table 15.3 and calculating the chi-square, contingency coefficient, and Cramer’s V.

1. Select ANALYZE on the SPSS menu bar.

2. Click on DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS and select CROSSTABS.

3. Move the variable “Internet Usage Group [i usage]” to the ROW(S) box.

4. Move the variable “Sex [sex)” to the COLUMN(S) box.

5, Click on CELLS.

6. Select OBSERVED under COUNTS and COLUMN under PERCENTAGES.

7. Click CONTINUE.

8. Click STATISTICS.

9. Click on CHI-SQUARE and CRAMER’S V.

10. Click CONTINUE.

11. Click OK

The major program for conducting parametric tests in SPSS is COMPARE MEANS. This program can be used to conduct t tests on one sample or independent or paired samples. To select these procedures using SPSS for Windows, click:

Analyze>Compare Means>Means …

Analyze>Compare Means>One-Sample T Test …

Analyze>Compare Means>lndependent-Samples Test …

Analyze>Compare Means–Paired-Samples T Test …

We give the detailed steps for running a one-sample test on the data of Table 15.1. We wanted to test the hypothesis that the mean familiarity rating exceeds 4.0. The null hypothesis is that the mean familiarity rating is less than or equal to 4.0.

1. Select ANALYZE from the SPSS menu bar.

2. Click COMPARE MEANS and then ONE SAMPLE T TEST.

3. Move “Familiarity [familiar]” into the TEST VARIABLE(S) box.

4. Type ‘4″ in the TEST VALUE box.

5. Click OK.

We give the detailed steps for running a two-independent-samples test on the data of Table 15.1. The null hypothesis is that the Internet usage for male and females is the same.

1. Select ANALYZE from the SPSS menu bar.

2. Click COMPARE MEANS and then INDEPENDENT SAMPLES T TEST.

3. Move “Internet Usage His/Week [i usage]” into the TEST VARIABLE(S) box.

4. Move “Sex[sex]” (0 the GROUPING VARIABLE box.

5. Click DEFINE GROUPS.

6. Type” I” in box GROUP I and “2” in box GROUP 2.

7. Click CONTINUE.

8. Click OK .

We give the detailed steps for running a paired samples t test on the data of Table 15.1. The null hypothesis is That there is no difference in the attitude toward the Internet and attitude toward technology.

1. Select ANALYZE from the SPSS menu bar.

2. Click COMPARE MEANS and then PAIRED SAMPLES T TEST.

3. Select “Attitude toward Internet [attitude], and then select” Attitude toward technology [attitude]”. Move these variables into the PAIRED VARIABLE(S) box.

4. Click OK.

The non-parametric tests discussed in this chapter call be conducted using NON-PARAMETRlC TESTS. To select these procedures using SPSS for Windows. click:

Analyze>Non-parametric Tests>-Chi-Square .

Analyze>Non-parametric Tests>Binomial .

Analyze>Non-parametric Tests>Runs ..

Analyze>Non-parametric Tests>1-Sample K-S …

Analyze>Non-parametric Tests>2 Independent Samples …

Analyze>Non-parametric Tests>2 Related Samples …

The detailed steps for the non-parametric tests are similar to those for parametric tests and are not shown due to space constraints.